Do not work on the Sabbath
‘Do not do any work…” Shemos 20:10
The Sages listed 39 major primary kinds of forbidden labour, which are found in the seventh chapter of the Talmud Shabbos 73a,
11 for bread
13 regarding clothing
7 for animal hides
1 Striking final blow
1 Taking out from domain to domain
Mounting the warp
Setting two heddles
Weaving two threads
Removing two threads
Tying a knot
Sewing two stitches
Tearing in order to sew two stitches
Trapping a deer
Tanning its hide
Writing two letters
Erasing two letters
1. Striking the final blow
1. Taking from one domain to another.
Regarding violation of the primary labour and their derivatives the punishment is death by stoning.
If done deliberately without a warning the penalty is spiritual severance.
If done unwittingly a sin offering is required.
The difference between primary labour and their derivatives is only regarding the number of offerings required.
The punishment for wilfully doing those types of labour which are called Shuvuth/Cessation as forbidden by the Sages who made this enactment as a protective measure is to be lashed for disobedience.
Regarding all these labours we are also commanded regarding our domestic animals.
To tell a non-Jew to do work is called Shuvuth/ Cessation and is forbidden by the Sages.
When there is danger to human life the Shabbos labour may be disregarded.
The Sabbath is equal in importance to all the Mitzvoth as it’s a sign between God and the Jewish people.
If someone intentionally violated the Shabbos he is considered like a heathen is all respects.
The Prophet praises one who guards the Shabbos as it says “Happy is the man that does this……keeps the Shabbos from desecrating it” Yeshayahu 56:2
This applies in all places at all times for men and women.